Studiu de specialitate – Free will in ”Tess of the D’Urbervilles” by Thomas Hardy

Autor: prof. Teiușanu Cristina
Liceul Tehnologic Vedea, Argeș

”Tess of the D’Urbervilles, A Pure Woman, Faithfully Presented’’ is a protest against society, a novel where Hardy writes about: the will to recover, the growth of love, faith, frail, happiness and death.
Here, the struggle of the main character begins after she is seduced by Alec D’Urbervilles, something that can be considered fatal or at least as the ending of all her hopes and future happiness. Fate seems to play a very important role in Tess’s tragic life, leaving her no chance for redemption. She sees her misfortunes to be so great that she finds no other solution than that of killing the man she considers responsible for much of her sufferings, at the same time sentencing herself to death.
Tess Durbeyfield is an intelligent, sensitive, scrupulous young woman and a strikingly attractive one. However, aside from her physical and moral qualities, she is still portrayed as a representative of  the lower class and of her own sex. Tess is isolated from the urban world, and spends her whole life in rural areas, working on farms to support herself and her own family. Continuarea

Anunțuri

Communicative Fluency Activities For Language Teaching

Autor: prof. Sauciuc Dorina-Maria
Scoala Gimnaziala “Aurelian Stanciu”, Salcea, jud. Suceava

One particular aspect of the teaching English as a foreign language is fluency practice. In her book “Discussion that Work Task-centered fluency practice” Penny Ur suggests some ways in which students may be induced to talk in the classroom, using the language creatively, purposefully and individually.
The vehicle of such use is defined as the discussion, in a very broad sense of the word. In Part1, the author tried to isolate and generalize about a number of elements that are essential for a good discussion (some of these are well-known and have been extensively written about: interesting topics, group-work, role-play), while others have been relatively neglected (the task as focus, organization of process).
The most natural and effective way for learners to practice talking freely in English is by thinking out some problem or situation together through verbal interchange of ideas, or in simpler terms, to discuss. This side of learning English come into grater prominence in recent years; instead of the idea, associated with the audio-lingual school, that students should use language in more or less controlled exercises until they have mastered its structures to a high degree, and only then begin to talk freely, it is now accepted that some sort of dynamic, individual and meaningful oral practice should be included in English lessons right from the beginning. Continuarea

L’ originalité de l’ espace franҫais

Autor: prof. Vizitiu Iulia–Irina
Școala Gimnazială „Dimitrie Luchian” com. Piscu, jud. Galați

La France s’inscrit dans un hexagone. Sa superficie est de 551.000 km. Elle a des frontières maritimes sur trois côtés: la Mer du Nord au nord–ouest, l’Océan Atlantique `a l’ouest, la Mediterranée au sud-est. Ses voisins sont: la Grande –Bretagne, la Belgique et le Luxembourg au nord; l’Allemagne , la Suisse et l’Italie à l’ est et l’Espagne au sud.
Son relief est varié: il y a les deux Frances.
-au nord et à l’ouest, c’est la France des faibles altitudes ou dominent les reliefs moderés (plaines, collines et bas plateaux) du Bassin Parisien, du Bassin Aquitan et du Massif Armoricain.
-au sud et à l’est, c’est la France des reliefs accidentés et des contrastes, montagnes moyennes et hautes montagnes.
Il y a des grandes unités du relief: plaines, fleuves, massifs montagneux, collines et bas plateaux.
L ‘espace français presente une grande diversité climatique, la France étant au coeur de la zone tempérée: Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – Comment motiver les élèves en classe de FLE?

Autor: prof. Buleu Alina
Şcoala Gimnazială Bârnova, jud. Iaşi

Dans l`enseignement de FLE la motivation se focalise sur le désir d`apprendre à travers des incitations crées pour l`affectivité. La motivation est définie en termes « d’état d’activation » pour répondre à un motif à satisfaire. Il existe diverses sortes de motivations mais nous nous intéressons ici aux motivations dites cognitives (la curiosité).
Elle consiste à susciter chez l’apprenant l’envie, le désir d’apprendre, à capter son attention, à l’intéresser. La motivation des élèves revêt une grande importance, en ce sens qu’elle met l’élève dans une situation qui l’amène à s’intéresser aux différents contours de la notion qui doit être évoquée.
Selon mon expérience en classe de FLE, la motivation des élèves intervient à plusieurs niveaux et diffère par sa nature et par la manière dont les élèves doivent être motivés. La motivation des élèves doit être permanente. Elle peut intervenir au début de chaque niveau de l’organisation des programmes d’enseignement, c’est-à-dire, quand on aborde un nouveau domaine, un nouveau chapitre, une leçon d’un chapitre donné.
Il faut donc veiller à bien cibler les éléments de motivation au risque de laisser les élèves avec des idées vagues. Par ailleurs, pendant une leçon donnée, elle est nécessaire avant le début de la mise en œuvre des objectifs de la leçon, mais aussi tout au long de celle-ci et pendant les activités d’apprentissage. Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – The Use of Rhythmic Mnemonics To Improve Memory and Recall in English language And Not Only

Autor: prof. Cristea Daniela
Școala Gimnazială Dimitrie Luchian, Piscu, Galați

Abstract – Mnemonic strategies that use imagery and visual cues to facilitate memory recall are commonly used in the classroom. A familiar tune, song or jingle, used as a mnemonic device is another popular memory aid. Studies of the brain and memory reveal that exposure to music not only alters but increases brain function in students. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of musical and rhythmic mnemonics to facilitate the recall of academic content in the classroom.
A review of the literature indicates that memory and recall improve when lyric and song are integrated as a learning strategy. The literature also reveals that musical mnemonics are particularly effective as a memory aid for the learning disabled and mildly handicapped student.
Experiments were conducted in three grade school classrooms. Children were taught songs with academic content in the curriculum areas that were current at the time. The students were interviewed and subsequently tested on the retention of subject matter and their experience.
A survey of teachers was conducted to investigate their knowledge of the effectiveness of musical mnemonics as a tool in the classroom and the frequency of their use. Findings indicated that using rhythmic and musical mnemonics in any classroom provides an attractive and innovative alternative instructional and learning strategy. Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – Teaching English grammar through games

Autor: prof. Chircev Irina-Andreea
Școala Gimnazială ”Gheorghe Șincai” Florești, jud. Cluj

Students often choose English as their favourite school subject. They enjoy studying it both at school and outside the school environment. It is amazing how easily they pick up language from games, films and music! Students bring to school their fondness to the language, their eagerness to learn more about it and their motivation to learn how to use it as a tool for real communication with people from other countries.
As teachers, one should never underestimate the power of motivation and sustain it as much as possible by means of using fun activities, such as: games, songs and other creative activities. In an attempt to teach grammar creatively, we have used many games presented in the specialised literature and some have proven more useful than others. Some of the most effective such activities are presented below:
1. Ask the right question (Harmer, 2007, p. 223)
Level: elementary plus
Language: any
Type of activity: game Continuarea

Teaching Reading

Autor: prof. Burtea Lavinia-Daniela
Liceul “Charles Laugier” Craiova, Județul Dolj

Teaching English requires special attention and an endless work from the teacher in order to make his classes interesting and get his students’ attention and motivation and make them acquire and learn English.
Teachers of English as a foreign language have to develop the students’ abilities in the language. It is the application of an integrating approach for the development of communicative skills in the classroom, in which the four skills in the acquisition of knowledge of a foreign language can be taught in a coherent way, and practiced together, with a distinction of the importance of one upon the other.
It makes little sense to talk about skills in isolation since, as Eli Hinkel points out, “in meaningful communication, people employ incremental language skills not in isolation, but in tandem” (Hinkel 2006:113). Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – The effect of using English fairy tales in English courses by adapting them to different activities

Autor: prof. Cristea Daniela
Școala Gimnazială Dimitrie Luchian, Piscu, Galați

Abstract – This research is realized as an experiemental study on fifth grade students that attended an optional course in English, „Our big, happy family” during the school year of 2013 – 2014 in our secondary school „Dimitrie Luchian” from Piscu, Galați. The experiment has the goal of presenting the effect of using English fairy tales and stories, in general, in English language education and the success of the students. the subjects of the experiemnt were divided into the control groul and the working group.
The data taken from the experiment has been analysed by using t-test in order to compare the average of the groups. It has been determined that using English story books in English courses by adapting them to different activities increased the success when compared with traditional methods and techniques according to the findings.
Keywords: English story books, relaxing environment, foreign language success, foreign language teaching Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – Another Approach to Conditionals

Autor: prof. Vorzsák Milán
Liceul Teoretic ”Brassai Sámuel” Cluj-Napoca

Conditionals or “if-clauses” are an integral part of the English grammar, taught in secondary and high school alike. Throughout the high school years they are revised and exercised, no English Language Olympiad is ever free of them, pupils are required to use these language items correctly during any advanced level language exams.
This is the reason that a language teacher needs to put emphasis on teaching the above mentioned grammar item, making use of the principle of cyclic learning, coming back to the same item again and again on higher levels of understanding and language development. Conditionals need to be part of the advanced student’s everyday language, without them the pupil’s range of expression is limited, just as if they lacked the knowledge of passive voice, modal verbs etc.
However, the teaching of conditionals can prove problematic on the most elementary of levels. A general presentation of the language item is required at this stage of the study, in order to pinpoint the possible problematic areas. Continuarea

Les matériels de lecture qu’on utilise en I ère année de l’école

Autor: prof. înv. primar Ene Georgiana
Școala Gimnazială Nr. 54, Sector 3

A la fin de l’apprentissage des lettres, l’élève devient capable d’identifier les mots qu’il sait ou non prononcer et d’en découvrir la prononciation par lui-même, de lire des histoires simples, et d’apprendre sans difficultés des concepts nouveaux. Il commence par s’aider d’indices contextuels, en cherchant dans l’histoire des éléments qui lui permettent de deviner la signification de certains mots ou idées qui lui sont inconnus. Il convient de mettre à sa disposition des matériels très variés.
L’élève doit être en effet capable de déchiffrer des textes divers, tels que guides de voyage, textes illustrés, timbres du monde entier ou instructions de lavage sur les étiquettes des vêtements. Il est donc très important de veiller à ce que les matériels de lecture, tout en étant en rapport avec les leçons, incitent l’élève à progresser, et reflètent son image de soi (en lui donnant des raisons d’être fier de lui) et ses centres d’intérêt.
-Timbres postaux nationaux et, si possible, de différents pays du monde.
-Panneaux de signalisation présents dans l’environnement
-Journaux (choisis avec discernement)
-Mots croisés et autres jeux de réflexion Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – Changes in the Form of the Modernist Novel

Autor: prof. Andrei Elena
Colegiul Economic Buzău

Introduction
The turn-of-the-century writers, whose works record the passage from the realist to the psychologically-oriented novel, agree that, if there should be a change in point of novel writing, this change should reside in a shift of focus from the description of the outer world to the representation of the inner world. This shift of interest is accompanied by an increased concern with the mechanisms of the art of writing.
Reseach results
The concept of art becomes central to the modern theory of the novel. The novelist is an artist, or a craftsman, whose condition of existence resides in his being capable of ‘speaking’, in expressing life through language. It is only by language that the artist can investigate and interpret outer and inner reality.
What gives the extent of a writer’s value is the power of seeing. The novelist is a keen observer endowed with imagination. To reach the status of the artist, the novelist should be in perfect control of the medium, of language and of form. Henry James theoretically expresses and practically proves by his novels that the novel represents a structure. Continuarea

Erection of a bridge deck for a cable stayed bridge

Autor: prof. ing. Popa Elena – Carmen
Colegiul Tehnic “Anghel Saligny” Bacău

The choice of the construction method depends mostly of the location of the bridge and its surroundings. Studying the ground conditions of our case, suitable method can be chosen, trying to minimize the costs and the time needed.
In fact, as it can be seen from figure 1, we have mostly ground and a very low level of the water on the left of the first pylon. Thus, there, the use of temporary supports could be economically viable.
Instead, for what regards the other two spans, the level of the water is higher, thus, building provisional support could be expensive and consequently a cantilever method would be preferable.
Therefore the proposed solution will be: Continuarea

A Research Study: Using Games during the English Language Classes – Students’ Perspectives –

Autor: prof. Adina Enăşoaei
Şcoala Gimnazială Coşteiu, jud. Timiş

In order to find out my pupils’ opinion about games and see what part they play in their learning activity, I conducted a research study in March 2015, using the questionnaire as a main technique. It was made up of five questions and it was meant to find out if children enjoy playing games during the English classes.
All my students in the 3rd and 4th forms, that is 43 pupils, answered these questions. My pupils were happy to answer the questionnaire because they liked the topic and had the chance to express themselves, writing exactly what they thought. They were allowed to resort to their mother tongue as well, being beginner level students in English, since the purpose of this activity was not for them to write in this language in an accurate way, but the one mentioned earlier in this paragraph. The questions asked were the following:
1. Do you like playing games during the English classes? If yes, why is that?
2. How often would you like games to be used during English classes?
3. Which are your favourite games?
4. At what stage of the lesson do you enjoy playing games?
5. Do you play games during other classes? Continuarea

L`utilisation de l`image dans la classe de FLE

Autor: prof. Ciobanu Diana-Ionela
Liceul Tehnologic ”Ion Mincu”, Vaslui

L`image est une forme de représentation de la réalité, sur un support matériel, en deux dimensions. Les différences existant entre les images proviennent d`un côté de leur technique de production et de l`autre, de la modalité dont elles sont diffusées et réceptées. On peut concevoir deux types d`image:
1. image fixe: dessin, peinture, gravure, photo, affiche, bande dessinnée;
2. image animée: le cinéma, le dessin animé, l`image vidéo.
La lecture de l`image dans le but de son interprétation dépend de plusieurs facteurs dont on mentionné: la qualité et les conditions de la perception visuelle, l`appartenance de destinataire ou de l`émetteur à une certaine culture et le choix d`envisager tel ou tel sujet selon le goût ou les mentalités de l`époque, selon les mouvements esthétiques, les croyances religieuses.
Toute image suppose un point de vue. Dans le cas des images fixes, il s`agit du point de vue du peintre, du photographe, du graveur, tandis que dans les images animées la question est plus complexe et elle tient à la distinction objectif (le point de vue du cinéaste-narrateur)/ subjectif (le point de vue d`un personnage). La composition de l`image implique le recours à deux types d`éléments: éléments non-figuratifs (lignes, points, couleurs) et éléments figuratifs (objets, paysages, personnages). La photographie semble celle qui reproduit le mieux la réalité, mais il ne faut jamais oublier qu`elle ausssi relève d`un choix subjectif et qu`elle n`est qu`une manière stylisée de rendre la réalité. Continuarea

Teaching Vocabulary to Primary Students

Autor: prof. Sîrbu Antoneta
Școala Gimnazială “ I. Gr. Teodorescu” Ruseni, Borlești

Teaching vocabulary to the primary students is a challenging task for educators. Their mission is to design the most effective long-term strategies and methods to reach the second language learning goal that is the increase of vocabulary. A good vocabulary has as a goal to produce and practise new words in ways that help the learner to hold information for a long period of time so that it can be easily remembered and used in the future. The “ingredients” of a good vocabulary work include:
•Good presentation of material. The language to be taught should be presented in such a way that learners could remember the work by means of contextualization.
•Engagement. Students should be engaged in the process of conveying. This method involves many techniques such as the use of pictures or contextual stories.
•Diagnosis. The teacher’s mission is to elicit from a context what it is known by the students before giving them the meaning of the new language. It is important for the teacher to assume that learners know nothing of the meaning. Continuarea

La publicité dans les classes de français

Autor: prof. Paraschiv Oana Nicoleta
Liceul Tehnologic ”Udrea Băleanu”, Băleni

La profession d’enseignant nous oblige à chercher toujours de sujets attrayants, de bonnes solutions pour nos apprenants et pour leurs besoins. Le choix du thème de la publicité n’est pas au hasard, nous avons choisi ce thème parce que nous jugeons qu’il mérite une profonde attention de la part de ceux qui sont impliqués, d’une manière ou d’une autre, dans le processus d’enseignement/apprentissage de la langue française, surtout, les enseignants de français. La publicité représente un thème qui fait partie de notre vie chaque jour et qui peut être considéré attrayant pour les élèves. Elle est amusante, attirante, signifiante, elle représente un véritable trésor pour le travail en classe de FLE. Dans la société moderne, la publicité est un sujet d’actualité incontournable et international. Continuarea

La production orale en classe de FLE

Autor: prof. Mihai Alexandra Daniela
Școala Gimnazială Nr. 1 Râca, jud. Argeș

Dans notre école les professeurs de français s’efforcent de développer chez leurs élèves beaucoup de compétences parmi lesquelles: la compréhension orale et écrite et aussi l’expression orale et écrite. Je m’arrête sur la production orale, parce que pour moi c’est la plus importante et la plus difficile à acquérir par mes élèves. L’expression orale implique l’existence d’une situation de communication authentique qui puisse motiver les élèves à s’impliquer dans des échanges réels.
On considère que la communication orale joue un rôle fondamental dans la vie des gens. À l’école on prépare les jeunes pour la vie qui est pleine d’obstacles. Tout en parlant on peut établir des relations sociales, on se lie d’amitié, on développe l’imagination et la créativité. Voilà le but principal dans notre école: parler toujours en français pendant les classes quand on étudie cette langue. Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – Motivation in learning English

Autor: prof. Vintilă Ovidiu Leonard
Colegiul Tehnic „Costin D. Nenițescu” Pitești

Argument
Learners’ motivation has become more commonly recognized as perhaps the major determining factor for successful learning in general, whether one is a high school student pushing one’s way through the battery of required courses needed to graduate, or an adult learner taking distance education courses. In any learning setting, the dynamics of motivation will be different. What will help a high school student sustain motivation may not apply to an adult learner, for example. Similarly, what factors affect and enhance learner motivation in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting (in our case) will differ as well. Furthermore, motivation for EFL learners in a middle school or high school class will differ from the experience of an EFL adult learner. Continuarea

Studiu de specialitate – Roles of teachers and learners in co-operative learning activities

Autor: prof. Daniela Incze
Școala Gimnazială „Ioan Opriș”, Turda, jud. Cluj

In the usual teacher-centred approach to language teaching, even if the teacher uses innovative techniques, the student is only an object of the teacher`s activity. The student is being led by the teacher and is dependent on the teacher. The student speaks, reads or writes, and may be involved in different kinds of activities, but it is the teacher who takes the initiative. The teacher is more active than the student.
In order to use co-operative learning techniques successfully, a radical change in the relationship between teacher and student is needed.
A classroom, where learning takes place, must be a pleasant environment. The activities cannot work unless there is a relaxed atmosphere. In such an environment learners become active managers of their own learning and the teacher becomes a counselor who creates an environment to promote autonomous learning. Continuarea

How to Teach Advanced English Classes

Autor: prof. Miulescu Florina Oana
Colegiul de silvicultură și protecția mediului, Rm. Vâlcea

Teaching Advanced English classes is not easy, but teaching students can be rewarding as you watch your students’ abilities grow each day. The purpose of these classes is to increase academic knowledge and apply that knowledge to real use, in college and in professional life. What you teach advanced students now about the use of English will help them in these endeavors.
Instructions
1. Plan your syllabus. Students need this itinerary of goals, objectives and grading standards. Provide the chapter and textbook page numbers as well as names of novels or short stories they will be reading. Keep the syllabus simple, no more than two pages, using either a „1, 2, 3” or „A, B, C” outline method of writing.
2. Publish your grading scale. Because grades are the final measure of success for your students, give them a clear grading scale at the beginning of the semester. Explain the calculation and percentages you use to average their final grade. The easiest way is to categorize grades based on tests, quizzes, essays/reports, and extra-credit (if allowed). Leave nothing open to interpretation to avoid disputes. Continuarea